Category Archives: Native Protests – Ipperwash

Caledonia Players: The Mohawk Warriors

Warrior flag, Caledonia, 2006The Mohawk Warriors played a key role in terrorizing Caledonia:

In the discovery for the Brown/Chatwell lawsuit, Superintendent John Cain, the OPP’s major incident commander in overall charge of DCE from March, testified that this information [presence of “extreme activists” on Douglas Creek Estates occupation site] came from [Superintendent Ron] George in early April [2006]. Cain also said that, in his view, “extreme activists” meant Mohawk Warriors, whom he described as being akin to Hells Angels in that the Warriors deploy themselves in a quasi-military manner and, as he succinctly put it, they “use guns, have guns.”

  • Helpless, Christie Blatchford, 2010, p55

Warrior flag, Caledonia, 2006

The officers said the OPP grew more concerned about the possibility of violence after the arrival of militant members of the Mohawk Warriors, a group described as “akin to the Hells Angels.” The Warriors were involved in organized crime and cigarette running and had a reputation for physical confrontation and access to guns, including assault rifles, court heard. “Their flag was raised higher than the Six Nations flag which is symbolic of who controls the site,” Insp. Haggith testified.

Warrior flag, Caledonia, 2006According to CBC, the Canadian Forces are going to provide a ‘heartfelt’ apology for listing the Warriors in a counter-insurgency manual in 2006:

Military officials are still finalizing the wording of the apology to the society, which was included in the draft counter-insurgency manual. The apology is expected in January or February. A spokesman for the Canadian Forces has called the apology important, and said it will be heartfelt. “We want to make sure that it’s [the apology] delivered in a proper format with a proper amount of respect and from the proper level,” Maj. Martell Thompson told CBC News.

The draft document singled out the aboriginal militant group as an example of “radical native American organizations” that can be “viewed as insurgencies with specific and limited aims.” The mention angered many Mohawks who claimed they were being compared to international terror groups such as Hezbollah and the Taliban.

But, who are the Mohawk Warriors?

CALEDONIA PLAYERS: The mohawk warriors  

1. Cozying up to friends of Hezbollah and Hamas

Native occupiers at Douglas Creek Estates, Caledonia fly the Palestinian flag (red, black, white, green) with the flag of Six Nations (purple, white) and the flag of the organized crime group Mohawk Warriors (red, yellow). CUPE members were on the site supporting the lawlessness since shortly after the failed OPP raid of April 20/06.

Within two weeks of the beginning of the occupation of the Douglas Creek Estates members of McMaster University’s Solidarity for Palestinian Human Rights were on the site. They were there on May 03, 2006 when the Niagara Palestinian Association raised the Palestinian flag along with the Six Nations and Mohawk Warriors flag (photo, right).

Jamila Ghaddar, a spokesperson for McMaster’s SPHR who was on the occupation site when the Palestinian flag was raised, was also a guest speaker at a Feb 22/08 Toronto protest organized by the Coalition Against Israeli Apartheid – a group that sent delegates to the 2007 Cairo Conference between March 29-April 01 to meet representatives of Hamas, Hezbollah and the Muslim Brotherhood.

As you can see from the photo (below, right), the Warrior flag was carried beside the face of Hasran Nazrullah, leader of Hezbollah at an anti-Israel rally. Walking beside the Warrior/Hezbollah combination is Ali Mallah, VP of the Canadian Arab Federation – which once petitioned the Canadian government to remove Hamas and Hezbollah from its terrorist watch list:

2. From Dr. Whitney Lackenbauer’s paper, Carrying the Burden of Peace

[p13] During the 1970s and 1980s, the Warrior Society expanded into neighbouring Mohawk communities and engaged in the lucrative cigarette trade to generate revenues. “After hours sales of alcohol, high stakes bingo, and slot machines have operated in defiance of the efforts of both traditional and elected Mohawk governments,” one reporter observed.

[p13] In 1988, two hundred RCMP officers raided cigarette stores at Kahnawake, prompting Warriors to seize the Mercier Bridge for twenty-nine hours.

[p13-14] Rick Hornung describes in One Nation Under the Gun how factional conflicts over the control of gaming and the cigarette trade (and those residents who opposed both activities) led to heavy fighting with automatic weapons and even grenades. The small fifteen-member Akwesasne Mohawk Police Service was overwhelmed following the murder of two Mohawks at Akwesasne and significant property damage. The challenge of policing a diverse First Nation, which harboured “highly sophisticated and powerful organized criminal elements,” became starkly apparent. Order on the reserve was temporarily restored by sizable numbers of Ontario Provincial and RCMP police officers, supported with CF armoured vehicles, secure communications, and engineer services such as rafts and high-speed inflatable boats, and still the violence continued. In early 1990, a Canadian mechanized battalion moved to Cornwall in preparation for an aid to the civil power mission which was subsequently canceled.

Warrior flag at tire fire, Caledonia, 2006The Warriors did not enjoy the easy support of all Mohawks and their tactics and approach divided the community. “The anger on the reserve between those opposed to gambling, drug-running and smuggling, and those who feel the natives should be a law unto themselves, will not easily be overcome,” Captain Tony Keene noted in early 1990.30 The Warriors were fiercely opposed by other traditional Mohawks who followed the teachings of the Seneca prophet Handsome Lake. […]

[p17, footnote 36] The Mohawk Warriors claimed publicly that the police fired first, and that Lemay had been a victim of fratricide (killed by a police bullet). Five years after the standoff, a coroner’s report concluded that the shot was fired by a Mohawk warrior, but the report did not identify the killer and no one was charged with Lemay’s murder.

[p20] LGen Kent R. Foster, the commander of the Mobile Force, concurred. “The Sûreté du Québec was not capable of facing the kind of weaponry in the Warriors’ arsenal,” he explained. “My view was that the army would eventually have to confront the natives. No police force in the country could be expected to deal with the circumstances that faced the Sûreté du Québec on July 11. […] This major internal security operation was officially described as “a brigade sized force in a confrontation with a well-armed dissident group whose potential military capabilities exceeded the capacity of civilian law enforcement agencies. […]

[p26] The Mohawk Warriors had impressive military capabilities that exceeded the capacity of civilian law enforcement agencies. A lawyer for the Kanesatake band council confirmed that many of the militant Warriors spearheading the Oka barricade were Vietnam veterans from the US side of the Akwesasne reserve. Their combat training and experience was reflected in the Mohawk positions: their barricades were well-sited and positioned to maximize cover and concealment, and they laid out an effective network of trenches and military obstacles. […]

Warrior flag at tire fire, Caledonia, 2006Furthermore, the Warriors established a sophisticated communications network between Akwasasne, Kanesatake and Kahnawake, making use of air raid sirens and fire hall bells, to hand-held radios, cellular telephones, local radio stations, and human patrols. They also possessed a large number of automatic weapons, supplemented by an array of hunting rifles, and had ample stockpiles of rations and ammunition. Overall, they were well organized and disciplined, with various calibre combat weapons “de très bonne qualité,” CWO Réginald Gagnon wrote.

[32-33] On a deeper level, this situation reflected the Warriors’ overarching agenda, which could not accommodate any government or military interests without an explicit recognition of Mohawk sovereignty. Of course, the government could not concede on a point that could jeopardize the integrity of the entire Canadian state […]

[38] With momentum clearly working against them, the Warriors subjected the soldiers to a constant barrage of racial insults, particularly towards French Canadians.

3. From former Ontario Minister of Aboriginal Affairs Michael Bryant’s Harvard Law School thesis

In his 1994 Harvard Law School thesis of May 1994 former Ontario Aboriginal Minister Michael Bryant – then a Master of Laws candidate – described the weaponry at OKA thusly:

Contributing to this extensive deployment was the Mohawk’s own fortifications. At the time of the July 11 S.Q. raid, the Mohawks had approximately 75 men armed with shotguns, high powered and semi-automatic pistols, a magnum revolver, assault and semi-automatic AK-47 rifles, a fully automatic machine gun, and several thousand rounds of ammunition. Over time, the Mohawk Warriors made more contributions to their arsenal, including a semi-automatic machine gun capable of firing 450-600 rounds per minute and of penetrating an APC. After a preliminary assessment of Mohawk fortifications and arms, the Army concluded that the Mohawks were “a highly organized paramilitary force.”

Although newspapers reported that Mohawks had as many as 6000 guns, the more plausible figure of 500-600 was reported by Geoffrey York’s text. Guns and ammunition continued to be smuggled in during the crisis, with a shipment of 80 AK-47s arriving in Kahnawake on the third or fourth week of the standoff. A number of decoys were also set, leading to television reports, for example, of a M72 rocket launcher. Similarly, it was never determined whether the wiring located on Mercier Bridge was actually an explosive or a hoax. A number of tank traps were set to halt APCs progress, and the bush in the Pines around Highway 138 was littered with lethal traps, resembling those the Vietnam veteran Warriors had perfected in that war. At its peak, as many as 500-600 Mohawks armed the fourteen bunkers and barricades surrounding the disputed territory.

  • Legal Aspects of Chiapas, Oka & Wounded Knee conflicts: Intranational Armed Conflicts between Indigenous Peoples and States, Michael J. Bryant, LL.M Candidate, Harvard Law School, May 03/94. Table of Contents: [LINK]
  • Bonafide researchers & journalists can contact Gary McHale for a copy of Mr. Bryant’s thesis.

4. More info about the Mohawk Warriors

If that isn’t enough, here’s more, including the role of the Mohawk Warriors in Ipperwash, and the support given them in Caledonia by radical unionists, anarchists and anti-Israel groups:

5. How the federal government funds native supremacist propaganda and a terror how-to guide

Unbelievable but true…


  • Celestial Junk, Dec 23/10: Cozy up to violently militant organizations
    I guess it’s the new CPC plan to attract Liberals.”
  • National Post editorial board, Dec 23/10: No apology for the Mohawk Warrior Society [PDF][…] It was Warrior Society members from the Kanesatake reserve south of Montreal who led the violent 78-day standoff at Oka, Que., in the summer of 1990. Masked and camouflaged Warriors shot and killed a Quebec provincial police officer, Marcel Lemay, in a dispute over the construction of a golf course and homes on land claimed by the Mohawks. The uniforms, language and militant postures they adopted were entirely in keeping with the conceit of an actual insurgency movement.In the spring of 2006, it was allegedly Warriors who incited violence when Mohawks from the Six Nations reserve occupied a residential subdivision under construction near Caledonia, Ont. in 2006. As Christie Blatchford documents in great detail in her new book, Helpless, these are not people who see themselves as bound by Canadian law.And just last summer on the Mohawk reserve at Akwesasne — west of Kanesatake — masked aboriginals claiming to be Warriors encircled a Canada Customs border crossing, which is situated on Akwesasne land. Nearly 200 band members built bonfires, banged drums and uttered threats to the border agents inside until the agents agreed to abandon their post. (Customs officers insist the Warriors were armed; they claim they were not.)The Warriors explain they are “just a militia,” not an insurgency. But what communities in Canada — including peaceful self-governing native bands — have the right to their own “militias?” This is Canada, not the Panjshir Valley.While the Kahnawake longhouse website carries a picture of its Warrior Society that looks more like a slow-pitch softball team than a group of armed rebels, they claim to be in charge of “national defence” of tribal lands. Following the outbreak of violence at Caledonia, the Kahnawake Warriors — officially dubbed the Rotisken’rakéhte or “duty of men to carry peace” — sent a message of solidarity to their Six Nations brothers and sisters demanding that the governments of Canada and Ontario cease “any further plans to invade our territories.”Our military may find value in building better relations with First Nations communities and people, but this apology — to be delivered early next year — will simply reinforce aboriginal leaders’ tendency to wallow in the politics of victimhood. It is politically correct wallpaper covering over the reality of continued aboriginal militancy.
  • The Phantom Soapbox, Dec 26/10: Who’s to blame here, really though?


Mark Vandermaas
Editor, VoiceofCanada
Founder, Caledonia Victims Project
Co-founder, Conservatives Against Fantino

‘The Mohawk Warriors for Dummies’ – a guide for Stephen Harper

Warrior flag at tire fire, Caledonia, 2006It is difficult to know which action by the Stephen Harper Conservatives is more despicable:     

1. Sitting back and watching while Julian Fantino, McGuinty and the OPP allowed the Mohawk Warriors organized crime group to terrorize Caledonia.     

Warrior flag, Caledonia, 2006In the discovery for the Brown/Chatwell lawsuit, Superintendent John Cain, the OPP’s major incident commander in overall charge of DCE from March, testified that this information [presence of “extreme activists” on Douglas Creek Estates occupation site] came from [Superintendent Ron] George in early April [2006]. Cain also said that, in his view, “extreme activists” meant Mohawk Warriors, whom he described as being akin to Hells Angels in that the Warriors deploy themselves in a quasi-military manner and, as he succinctly put it, they “use guns, have guns.”   

  • Helpless, Christie Blatchford, 2010, p55 

Warrior flag, Caledonia, 2006The officers said the OPP grew more concerned about the possibility of violence after the arrival of militant members of the Mohawk Warriors, a group described as “akin to the Hells Angels.” The Warriors were involved in organized crime and cigarette running and had a reputation for physical confrontation and access to guns, including assault rifles, court heard. “Their flag was raised higher than the Six Nations flag which is symbolic of who controls the site,” Insp. Haggith testified.     

Warrior flag, Caledonia, 2006OR…   

2. Annointing Julian Fantino as the CPC candidate in Vaughan – one of the key leaders of the OPP/Liberal ‘peacekeeping’ force that provided security, legal and PR services to the criminals who terrorized Caledonia.  The same Julian Fantino who cruelly joked recently that he was going to be a voice for victims now that he was an MP:    


Warrior flag at tire fire, Caledonia, 20063. Ordering the Canadian Forces to…I can barely write the words…apologize to the criminals who terrorized Ipperwash, Caledonia, Deseronto and Oka. Oka – where they murdered Corporal Marcel Lemay. Marcel Lemay – the dead police officer to whom Christie Blatchford’s Helpless is dedicated. Blatchford – the award winning author whose book the Conservative Party of Canada refused to wait to read before appointing Julian Fantino as their Vaughan candidate.  Helpless – the book about how Caledonia was terrorized by Mohawk Warriors.     

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Let healing begin with Six Nations apology


UPDATE 0006 EST June 12/09: It seems that the extremists on Six Nations aren’t ready to apologize to the people of Caledonia. See, ‘BULLETIN: Natives build smoke shack on private property,’ and ‘Thanks to Six Nations women for helping to expose racial policing during highway protest.’

Now that native leaders have begun to acknowledge that victimizing their non-native neighbours is not conducive to the long term interests of native people at large, an apology from Six Nations to the people of Caledonia & Brantford would go a long way to beginning the healing process between the communities.

Just as the government of Canada apologized for residential schools, so do the representatives of Six Nations need to acknowledge and apologize for the crimes committed by the extremists in their community against innocent non-natives:

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Book Review: Disrobing the Aboriginal Industry


Dr. Frances Widdowson’s blog: Offended by Offence

UPDATE: Gary McHale (Canadian Advocates for Charter Equality) and Mark Vandermaas (VoC editor and founder of Caledonia Victims Project) have been invited to speak at a ‘New Directions in Aboriginal Policy’ forum at Mount Royal University in Calgary on May 05/10 by the author of Disrobing the Aboriginal Industry, Dr. Frances Widdowson. You can see the program and various writings from the speakers here: 

UPDATE: Author Frances Widdowson cites VoC in ‘Pseudoleftist support for “Mohawk Warriors” in Caledonia, Dec 02/09.

UPDATE: Frances Widdowson, co-author of ‘Disrobing the Aboriginal Industry‘ comments on Caledonia and the Brown/Chatwell trial in ‘Caledonia: A glimpse of aboriginal self-government,’ Nov 23/09. 

UPDATE: National Post book review of ‘Disrobing the Aboriginal Industry,’ July 02/09: Peter Foster: The chiefs have no clothes

UPDATE: Policy Options, March 2002: The Aboriginal Industry’s New Clothes  PDF, by Widdowson & Howard

UPDATED 1311 EST June 21/09

Disrobing the Aboriginal Industry: The Deception Behind Indigenous Cultural Preservation

Frances Widdowson and Albert Howard
McGill-Queen’s University Press  Format: Trade Paperback
Published: November 1, 2008
330 pages
ISBN – 10:0773534210
ISBN – 13:9780773534216

Available at Chapters: $32.99


A delicious paradox…

For those seeking to understand the insanity of racial policing and the official tolerance of it by the McGuinty government (and others) ‘Disrobing the Aboriginal Industry: the Deception Behind Indigenous Cultural Preservation‘ tells it exactly like it is without ever talking about Caledonia or Ipperwash. That delicious paradox will be especially appreciated by readers who are familiar with the issues associated with land claim lawlessness in those locales. 

The book’s importance was recognized early on when it was placed on the Short List as a finalist for the Donner Prize, awarded for the best book on Canadian public policy. The winner will be announced on Thursday, April 20/09.

Toronto Star article by authors

The Toronto Star recently carried an article written by the authors that explains why the “self-serving industry” thrives on “the continuation of aboriginal dependency and social deprivation.”

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McGuinty’s Ipperwash Cover-up: The Caledonia Legacy


The Caledonia-based Regional News has become the first media outlet in Canada to publish the full story of our Ipperwash Papers project, and the legacy of the inappropriate application by McGuinty of the Ipperwash Inquiry’s flawed recommendations.

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CANACE letter to Hamilton Spectator Editor-in-Chief

Sent: Mon 5/5/2008 8:51 PM

From: Mark Vandermaas
To: David Estok [Editor-in-Chief], Joan Walters
Cc: Mary-Lou LaPratte
Subject: Re: ‘A Changed Perspective’ by Joan Walters [May 05/08]

The Ipperwash inquiry, called by McGuinty just months after his election, included the first thorough examination of the origins and dynamics of Canadian native protest and its consequences.”

Dear Ms Walters:

Including this email, I have now contacted 3 different Spectator reporters and your Editor-in-Chief on several occasions to advise that we have evidence proving that the Ipperwash Inquiry deliberately suppressed all evidence of native crime against innocent residents in Ipperwash (which is why not a single one of its 100 recommendation has anything to do with preventing violence against residents.)

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‘Ipperwash legacy’ flyer for Ontario PC convention

We invited John Tory to speak at the pre-election ‘Remember Us’ March in Caledonia on Oct 08/07. Unfortunately, he didn’t see it as a priority at the time, so people like Joe Gualtieri and Sixth Line’s ‘Dancer‘ were forced to stand alone on the hill at the Lions Hall without the benefit of his support. 

Given Tory’s recent decision to aggressively join our fight to restore ‘One Law for All,” however, we thought we should support him by helping delegates to the Ontario PC convention understand the role that the Ipperwash Inquiry failures is playing in the victimization of Caledonia.

250 flyers distributed at convention 

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National Post exposes role of corruption, mismanagement, incompetence in reserve misery


UPDATED 1103 EST Feb 27/08: Six Nations ex-councillor charged with theft, fraud, forgery .

Occasionally, when I talk to people about landclaim lawlessness, their reaction is something like, “Yeah, but look at how we (Canada) treat natives on the reserves. They don’t even have safe drinking water for God’s sake. No wonder they’re angry.”

The latest installment in the National Post’s ‘Rethinking the Reserve’ series entitled, ‘Problems of Governance‘ completely destroys  – once and for all – the myth that it is Canada’s lack of compassion or deliberate misfeasance that has led to the problems on reserves. 

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Michael Bryant: Ontario deserves fair inquiry into violence against residents

When Michael Bryant came to visit Caledonia on Nov 26/07 we were handing out a CANACE flyer to journalists and other dignitaries as they arrived at the Caledonia Lions Hall for their private meeting.

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Canadian Civil Liberties Association turns blind eye to Caledonia’s agony

UPDATE 1531 Dec 19/07: The CCLA responds to this article. See Canadian Civil Liberties Association replies to our cries for help

UPDATE 2047 EST Dec 11/07: Nov 09/07 cover letter reprinted

t-shirt_free-caledonia-now_sep22-07.jpgThis article is long overdue, but a comment from a regular reader to McHale strikes back at OPP’s “nice little package” drew it out of me as I wrote my reply to him. Thanks WL; this is the perfect time to write it, given the events of the past week.

WL Mackenzie Redux   December 9, 2007 7:41pm

Mark: First I want to thank you and Gary for the burdens you have shouldered in fighting for civil liberties most Canadians are unworthy of having.

Second: Can you clue me as what repugnant denizen of McGuilty’s anus issued a communications ban between 2 co-defendants?? This scum should be removed from the bench/bar.

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Brantford Expositor endorses violence against civil rights activist

UPDATED Jan 29/10

UPDATE 1425 Dec 08/07: The Managing Editor of the Brantford Expositor has accepted my offer to reprint the entire disputed editorial on VoiceofCanada in place of the short excerpt quoted in the original version of this article. 

UPDATE 1720 EST Dec 07/07: Brantford Expositor responds. See Brantford Expositor: “at no time do we condone violence”


Since last Saturday’s events, we have been busy reviewing evidence, and preparing for yesterday’s news conference at the Queen’s Park Media Studio which was attended by MPP Toby Barrett, Haldimand’s new CAO, Don Boyle (thank you for coming!) and at least one OPP officer.  You can find complete coverage at

Hamilton Spectator, CHTV assist in vilifying Gary McHale 

On November 09, 2007 the Hamilton Spectator published a complete transcript of Susan Clairmont’s interview with OPP Commissioner Julian Fantino in which he accused “McHale and company” of – among many other things – wanting civil war, violence and a Pakistani-style dictatorship. So far, we have written a total of 5 letters to the Spectator, including to Editor-in-Chief David Estok, asking that we be allowed to respond to Fantino’s irrational accusations, and to meet with them to help them understand the truth. So far, the Spectator has not given us the courtesy of a response.

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VoC interviewed for journalism school project


UPDATED 1700 EST Dec 05/07

In my last article, I talked about our invitation to speak at the University of Waterloo. At about the same time we received the U of W invitation to speak, I was contacted by a journalism student at another university who was working on a senior year project. She wanted to interview me about my views on how the media has covered Caledonia, a subject that is very near and dear to my heart.

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VoC, CWUC speak at University of Waterloo


UPDATED 1224 EST Nov 14/07 

I am very pleased to report that Gary McHale and I were honoured by an invitation by Dr. Andrew Houston, to speak to a Drama class at the University of Waterloo on Nov 01/07 in order to present our perspective on the effects the Caledonia occupation is having on its residents. The class is conducting extensive research into the issue as preparation for a production scheduled to take place in mid-February 2008.

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Fantino – delusional or desperate?


Bad as Fantino’s recent comments about Gary McHale and his ‘interlopers’ were in Susan Clairmont’s Nov 08/07 Hamilton Spectator article called Fantino Takes Aim [reprint], they pale in comparison to other remarks attributed to Fantino in a Nov 09/07 Spectator transcript of the entire interview [PDF].

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Dumb and dumber in Caledonia

2inch_voc_logo-url.jpgUPDATE Oct 25/07: A feature page for the October 08/07 ‘Remember Us’ March has been set up. It includes videos of speeches and some terrific media coverage including an amazing editorial by Bill Jackson of The Regional criticizing Caledonia’s leaders – both political and business – for their conspicuous lack of participation.

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